Noble International Journal of Scientific Research


Online ISSN: 2521-0246 | Print ISSN: 2523-0573

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    Volume 3 Number 12 December 2019

INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF POWDER AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA, OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM AND DRACAENA ARBOREA AGAINST NYMPHS OF THE DOMESTIC PEST PERIPLANETA AMERICANA (DICTYOPTERA: BLATELLIDAE)

Pages: 117-135
Authors: Ukoroije, Rosemary Boate*, Bobmanuel, Rosetta Bekinwari
Abstract
Laboratory studies aimed at assessing the efficacy of leaf powders and ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum gratissimum and Dracaena arborea applied at various concentrations of 10-50 in controlling the nymphs of Periplaneta americana through contact toxicity test via filter paper and by topical application with five replications. The results showed significant differences (p?0.05) between the treatments and the controls with mean mortality values from leaf powder as: 00 (control): 0.5±0.20, 0.6±0.20, 0.5±0.20; 10g: 9.8±2.60, 9.5±2.60, 5.3±1.80; 20g: 14.5±3.30, 12.8±2.90, 7.0±2.30; 30g: 17.8±3.60, 15.5±3.30, 8.8±2.60; 40g: 20.3±2.90, 17.0±3.60, 10.3±2.60, 50g: 23.5±4.10, 22.0±3.90, 12.5±2.90; Contact toxicity by topical application of ethanolic extracts gave control: 0.6±0.20, 0.25±0.1, 0.6±0.20; 10ml: 16.3±3.40, 12.0±2.80, 10.3±2.60; 20ml: 19.5±3.60, 16.3±3.40, 12.8±2.90; 30ml: 23.3±4.00, 19.3±3.80, 14.5±3.30; 40ml: 26.5±4.60, 22.3±3.90, 17.0±3.60, 50ml: 27.3±4.60, 24.8±4.20, 21.3±3.90 while contact toxicity on filter paper, recorded mortality values of control: 0.6±0.20, 0.0±0.00, 0.6±0.20; 10ml: 16.5±3.50, 12.0±2.80, 9.8±2.60; 20ml: 19.0±3.80, 17.0±3.60, 12.0±2.80; 30ml: 24.0±4.20, 19.3±3.80, 14.3±3.30; 40ml: 26.0±4.60, 20.8±3.90, 16.5±3.50, 50ml: 27.0±4.60, 25.0±4.30, 21.0±3.90 respectively for A. indica, O. gratissimum and D. arborea treatments. All treatments proved effective and nymph mortality was concentration dependent, however A. indica ethanolic extract treatments were most significantly bioactive. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of active ingredients such as saponins, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols with larvicidal and insecticidal properties when utilized in powder or extract forms. Finally, botanicals as reported by literature, have no toxic effects on man, are eco-environmental friendly and locally available, hence should be utilized in biological pest management practices and control systems.

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