Online ISSN: 2521-0246 | Print ISSN: 2523-0573
Volume 3 Number 5 May 2019
PREVALENCE OF MALARIA PARASITES USING DIFFERENT DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING A TERTIARY HEALTH INSTITUTION IN BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIAPages: 53-61
Authors: Tubonimi Azi Okpu*, Sunday Etim Bassey, Ebenezer Amawulu
This study evaluated the prevalence of malaria parasites using different diagnostic techniques among pregnant women attending a tertiary health institution in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 364 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa state within the age grade of 18 – 40 years. The blood was analyzed using Microscopy, Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Results showed that 240 cases representing 65.9% were positive using microscopy method, 323 cases representing 88.7% were positive using Polymerase Chain Reaction, and 253 cases representing 69.0% were positive using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay techniques for malaria parasite detection. Statistically, there was significant difference at p<0.05 among the various methods of diagnosis. Based on malaria parasite speciation, the prevalence were in order; Plasmodium falciparum > co-infection (P. vivax + P. falciparum) > P. vivax for each of the techniques. Based on the parasites analysis, co-infection (P. vivax + P. falciparum) and P. vivax showed no significant variations (p>0.05) across the various techniques, but significant difference (p<0.05) exist across the techniques except for P. falciparum. In this study Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay showed to have higher capacity to detect malaria parasitaemia even at low density when compared to the Microscopy technique. Therefore, there is the need to increase the front burner in the diagnosis of malaria using the current techniques.