Online ISSN: 2519-9722 | Print ISSN: 2522-6789
Volume 4 Number 6 June 2019
ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SCHOOL VIOLENCE AND BOTH DEPRESSION AND THE OTHER POSSIBLE RELATED FACTORS ON HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ESKISEHIR RURAL AREA, WESTERN TURKEYPages: 105-110
Authors: Mustafa TOZUN*, Ebru TURHAN, Alaettin ÜNSAL
Aim: To determine the frequency of school violence, and to evaluate possible relations between school violence with depression and other some characteristics among high school students in a rural area, western Turkey. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted between from 01 November 2012 to 31 December 2012. The study group has occurred in 1158 (87.7% of target population) high school students. Within the last 1 year, at least one of the physical, verbal, emotional and sexual violence types in the school and at least one-time exposure student has been accepted as "the student who has school violence". Beck Depression Scale was used to determine of depression level. For statistical analyses; Qui square test was used. Results: Of the study group, 637 (55.0%) were the girl. The frequency of the violent applied student of school was 36.8% (n: 426). The most frequently verbal violence (36.8%, n: 426) and at least sexual violence (11.5%, n: 133) were reported. The frequency of depression was 23.7% (n: 275). The frequency of the violent applied student was higher in boys, 17 and older age groups, the students of 11th and 12th grade, those with A-Type personality, smokers, and those with fragmented family structure than the others (for each one; p <0.05). The frequency of the student with the school violence victimization was 12.1% (n: 141). The students with the school violence victimization have higher the frequency of depression than the others (p <0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that close to half of the students who participated in the study were exposed to school violence. Among students with stories of school violence, depression was more likely to occur. It would be appropriate for the teachers, parents, and the students to work in cooperation to prevent school violence against students.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT AND LOAN PORTFOLIO IN COMMERCIAL BANKS OF RWANDA; A CASE OF URWEGO OPPORTUNITY BANK (2012-2016)Pages: 86-104
Authors: Pascasie NDIKUMANA*, Dr. Sazir Nsubuga Mayanja, Dr. Gedion Alang’o Omwono
This study focuses on relationship between credit risk management and loan portfolio in commercial banks of Rwanda; a case of Urwego Opportunity Bank in the years of 2012-2016. This study was guided with the following research objectives: to examine the influence of credit risk management on loan portfolio; to analyze the management of loan portfolio and to determine the relationship between credit risk management and loan portfolio in UOB from 2012 to 2016. In this study, purposive and stratified sampling technique were used in selecting 15 respondents out of 77 target population staff of credit department of UOB. Under this, a triangulation was adopted where weakness of the other tools was addressed by the other data tools. Data analysis was done by using Descriptive statistical tools (SPSS) version 21. This study found that the lending policies are highly implemented with mean of 3.13; 3.08 shown that lending decision is well made. And 2.64 indicated that the recovery techniques are effectively applied; the overall mean of 3.03 shown that loan risk monitoring is performed. Above all effort has been made to achieve better credit risk management in UOB and it has shown a positive relationship with loan portfolio management although the ratio of NPL has not decreased. This is because in 2016, the UOB has granted loan in corn farming in Kirehe, Kayonza and Bugesera districts and unfortunately climate change due to excess of draught, from August 2016, has led to crop failure Prompting the borrowers not to pay. This study recommended that financial institutions specifically Urwego Opportunity Bank, should add agriculture insurance in loan requirements to minimize agriculture loan risks.