Online ISSN: xxxx-xxxx | Print ISSN: xxxx-xxxx
Volume 1 Number 1 November 2019
CO INTEGRATION AND VECTOR ERROR CORRECTION MODELS ANALYSIS OF PRODUCER PRICES OF CASSAVA, RICE AND MAIZEPages: 37-43
Authors: Olajide Oyebisi Olatunji
This study analyzed the relationship among producer prices of cassava, rice and maize in NNNigeria. The study used annual time series data spanning from 1991 to 2013. Results from Augmented Dickey Fuller test showed that the time series data were not stationary in their level forms but were integrated of order one, I (1). The trace test and maximum Eigen values of Johansen co-integration test indicated 3 co-integrations at the 5 percent level which showed there is a long run relationship among the variables during the period of study.
Nigeria. The study used annual time series data traversing from 1991 to 2013. Results from Augmented Dickey Fuller test indicated that the time series data were not stationary in their level structures but were integrated of order one, 1. The trace test and maximum Eigen values of Johansen co-integration test indicated 3 co-integrations at the 5 percent level which showed there is a long run relationship among the variables during the time of study. The result of the VECM showed the Maize producer price reacted faster than the Cassava and Rice prices. The adjustment coefficient was not statistically significant for the three selected producer prices suggesting that the Cassava and Rice prices are firmly exogenous. This infers that change in Cassava and Rice prices was profoundly influenced by price in Maize while change in price of Maize directed by occasions in cassava and rice prices. This means that the long run equilibrium in the producer prices after exogenous shock was re-established principally by adjustments made by producer prices of maize. Granger causality demonstrated that cassava producer price decided the producer prices of rice and maize which showed a unidirectional causality. Producer prices of rice and maize neither granger caused each other. Hence, the null hypothesis that the producer price does not granger cause each other is rejected. Therefore, price policy in favour of cassava development should be advanced.
MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FUNGI RESPONSIBLE FOR SPOILAGE AND POSTHARVEST LOSS OF COWPEA SEEDS IN IBADAN, NIGERIAPages: 29-36
Authors: Peter M. Etaware*, Oredoyin A. Ogungbemile
Fungi and insects play significant roles in the reduction of the quality of stored cowpea seeds in major local markets in Nigeria, resulting in drastic decline in value due to discoloration, astringent taste, unpleasant flavor and foul smell. The dearth of information in Southwestern, Nigeria was the impetus behind this research. Three major markets within Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria were randomly selected for cowpea seeds assessment. Standard laboratory techniques were used in the determination and identification of the pathogens. The fungi isolated and identified were Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. parasiticus, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Fusarim oxysporum. Aspergillus strains had higher disease dominance and ability to grow on poor substrates. All the fungal strains isolated had negative effects on the sprouting of cowpea seeds except Aspergillus niger. Cowpea seeds obtained from Ibadan markets were confirmed to be contaminated by different strains of fungi. The result of this study was an evaluation of the unforeseen danger to human health caused by microbes; this is a serious course for concern.
WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURE AND ISSUES IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN SRI LANKAPages: 20-28
Authors: B.S.A.K. Rathnayake*,N.W.M.G.S.Navaratne
Agriculture occupies a special place in the Sri Lankan economy while women being essential contributors of it. In addition to the access and ownership to main production inputs such as land, water, planting materials, etc. access to agricultural extension services by the female farmers will also play a prominent role in this regard. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the status of women participation in Sri Lankan agriculture, the issues in agricultural extension system which hinders women participation in main agricultural activities and the strategies needed to make sure balanced agricultural extension is delivered to the community working towards socio-economic development. This article is based on a review of existing literature on women’s participation in agriculture including agricultural extension services in Sri Lanka. It was found thatAs stated in literature, even though the proportion of employed population in agriculture sector is diminishing throughout the last five years, female share is still higher than male counterparts. Although women’s contribution is still kept unrecognized, they women involve in almost all the sub- sectors of agriculture. Being an important stakeholder of nationalentire food production system, womens’ capabilities are being underutilized by limiting their opportunities in productive and profitable agriculture. It was evident that female farmers were having problems in participating extension programs while female extension officers were facing challenges in conducting effective extension programs. If these barriers are removed and the human resources, both male and female, involved in agriculture and agricultural extension is properly managed, productivity will boost in several folds. empowerment is a crucial factor to gain optimum benefits in agriculture. WTherefore women involvement in extension and advisory programs is critically important to increase their position in agriculture. However it was clear that female farmers were having problems in participating extension programs while female extension officers were having problems in conducting extension programs. Hence, strong gender-sensitive policies are required to facilitate increasemore women’s participation in decision making and accessing resources in the agriculture sector.
QUALITY EVALUATION OF “AHUMA”: A TRADITIONAL BREAKFAST PORRIDGE MEAL FROM AFRICAN YAM BEAN (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) SOLD IN MAKURDI METROPOLISPages: 13-19
Authors: Ikala, G.U, Ochelle, P.O*, Idoko, B.O.
The chemical and sensory properties of “Ahuma” porridge meal prepared from Africa yam bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) sold in different locations by vendors in Makurdi metropolis were investigated. “Ahuma” was purchased from vendors in North Bank, Asase North bank, High level, wadata and Kanshio areas were analyzed. The proximate composition of “Ahuma” in all the locations were significantly (P?0.05) different from each other. Mineral analysis showed phosphorus was the most abundant element in all the “Ahuma” samples. The highest phosphorus content (72.38 mg/100g) was recorded in sample E (Kanshio area), sample B had the highest content of Magnessium (45.38 mg/100g). The result of this study also revealed that sensory attributes of colour/appearance, aroma, taste, mouthfeel and overall acceptability were significantly (P<0.05) higher in samples collected from Kanshio than in samples collected from other areas. The study showed African yam bean have potentials for combating protein-energy malnutrition.
PHYSIO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF WHEAT BREAD FORTIFIED WITH MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED FLOURPages: 01-12
Authors: Otokpa Edu Comfort, Ochelle Paul Ohini*, Ikala Gloria Ulenya, Akor Isaac Ahangba
The study evaluated the quality of bread from the composites of wheat and moringa seed flours. The flour blends were formulated as 100:0 (A), 95:5 (B), 90:10 (C), 85:15 (D), 80:20 (E) of wheat and moringa seed flours. Proximate, vitamins and minerals composition, physical and sensory properties were evaluated using standard methods. The Proximate composition (%) of the bread showed that the moisture content increased from 20.40 to 23.19%, protein from 6.15 to 7.22%, fat from 19.43 to 23.66%, crude fiber from 0.02 to 0.06% and ash content from 1.41 to 1.63% while carbohydrate decreased from 49.34 to 46.16%. The beta-carotene contents increased from 2.21 to 2.26 while vitamin C contents decreased from 9.21 to 4.30 (mg/g). The Calcium contents of the bread increased slightly from 0.002 to 0.065 (mg/g), Iron contents increased from 1.99 to 3.38 while the magnesium contents increased from 0.001 to 0.007 (mg/g) with the addition of moringa seed flour. Addition of moringa seed flour significantly (p<0.05) increased the loaf heights from 7.35 to 8.60 (cm), loaf weights from 229 to 239 (g), loaf volumes from 0.92 to 1.92 (cm3) and the specific volumes from 0.004 to 0.008 (g/cm3). The sensory evaluation of bread revealed that samples B and D were more acceptable. The present study showed that bread produced from refined wheat flour and moringa seed flour had increased nutrient contents (moisture, protein, fat and ash). Increased level of substitution of the moringa seed flour increased the general acceptability of the bread samples by the panelists. Moringa seed flour is recommended as ingredient in the formulation of the blend at levels of 5% and 15%, respectively.