Noble International Journal of Economics and Financial Research


Online ISSN: 2519-9730 | Print ISSN: 2523-0565

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    Volume 6 Number 2 February 2021

An Examination of the Role Female Traders Play in the Liberian Economy

Pages: 44-55
Authors: Alvin Boye Dolo
Abstract
This study access the Investigation into the Involvement of Liberia Women in cross Border Trade at the Guinea Border with Liberia; 2014-2016.” The significance of the include: The research findings are of value to the various industries in the region that will have available information on the functions of the cross border trade. Government and policy makers. The study was carried out through a descriptive survey design. The target group for the purposes of this study was importers and exporters at border point. The study focused on female traders on the Liberia side of the border. The total population of the study is 500 registered female traders with a sample size of 70 respondents. The study used both primary and secondary data was used in this research. The study shows that 25 respondents representing 42% and all comprising of females in the study were between 30 – 39 years and another 16 respondents representing 26% and all comprising of female in the study were between 20– 29 years. The study shows that 30 respondents representing 50% in the study agreed that Liberia Females are involved in Traders at the border between Guinea and Liberia, 20 respondents representing 33% and all comprising of females in the study agreed that the involvement of Liberia Female Traders at the Liberian and Guinean has an impact on the development of trade at the Liberian and Guinean border. Base on the findings the researcher concludes that: The regional Governments have made considerable efforts in reducing the incentives to trade informally, by diminishing the costs of formal importing/ exporting; enhancing compliance levels with existing regulations; and improving trading opportunities and services for traders in the formal sector. The study recommends that: 1) Formulation of the Customs Management Act, the Customs Management Regulations outlining standard forms and fees payable across the region. 2) Simplifying and reducing documentation.

Rising External Debt Burden, Increase Financial Stability Risk; the Need for Fiscal Adjustment in Nigeria

Pages: 33-43
Authors: Adamgbo, Suka., Kenn-Ndubuisi, Juliet Ifechi*, Toby, J. Adolphus
Abstract
The study examines the rising external debt burden, increased financial stability risk; the need for fiscal adjustment. Given that economic sustainability is the prime desire of every economy and considering the continuous accumulation of external borrowings. Our main focus is to investigate the fiscal vulnerability and debt sustainability position of the Nigerian economy. To find out whether the country’s present fiscal position is sustainable? Has the substantial external borrowings in the last two decades of uninterrupted democratic rule significantly supported the growth path of the Nigeria economy? If not, there is need for fiscal adjustment. Our period of investigation spans from 1999 to 2019. Data estimated using the time series based from CBN, Federal Ministry of Finance, IMF/World Bank publications. In analyzing the country’s debt burden/vulnerability, we applied the IMF debt burden indicators under the debt sustainability framework (DSF) for low income countries. Using the descriptive statistic, the study also employed the regression analysis technique to exploits the cause and effect relationship between the nation’s present debt stock, debt servicing obligation and the nominal as well the real economic growth rate. Our findings revealed the following; (i) using the percentile analysis and comparing it with the major debt sustainability bench marks under the IMF/Work Bank specifications, the country’s debt sustainability position was very negligible. The Nigerian situation shows debt sustainability position that fell below the bench marks (ii) the results of our finding also indicates a negative statistically significant relationship that exists between debt stock, servicing payment and both the nominal and real GDP. Based on our results, we concluded that the present fiscal vulnerability position of the country if not checked or curtailed through fiscal adjustment would amount to increasing the financial stability risk capable of causing deterioration in the functioning of the economy. We therefore, suggest amongst other measures that all should be aimed at improving and or enhancing monetary restrains, debt contraction restrains as well evolving and improving existing rules toward achieving fiscal responsibility and discipline.

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