Online ISSN: xxxx-xxxx | Print ISSN: xxxx-xxxx
Volume 1 Number 2 December 2019
ORGANOLEPTIC ATTRIBUTES OF LEGUME-YOGHURT SAMPLES FERMENTED BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIAPages: 75-83
Authors: Agim-Ezenwaka, O. A, Onuh, E. F, Ndulaka, J. C, Onwusiribe, U. D*, Chukwu, M. N
The organoleptic attributes of legume-yoghurt fermented by lactic acid bacteria were studied. About 500g of whole legume seeds were sorted, washed, boiled for 30 minutes and then dehulled manually. The dehulled seeds were soaked separately overnight in clean tap water. The seeds were thoroughly washed. The seeds were blended separately in a blender with hot water (seed: water ratio =1:5) till a very smooth consistency was achieved. The resultant slurry from each seed was filtered through cheese cloth to yield the respective legume-milks. About 100ml of the resultant legume milk were pasteurized at 90oC for 15 minutes in triplicates. The first set had no glucose, the second set had 2% glucose while the third had 5% glucose added. Each legume-milk was inoculated with 0.5g of the starter culture and incubated at 42oC for 48 hours in a water bath. After fermentation, the samples were stored for 0-10 day(s) at 4oC and 28oC. Sensory evaluation of three legumes-yoghurt samples with 2% glucose was conducted with dairy yoghurt as a control by 20-member panelist which evaluated the coded samples for appearance, taste, texture, aroma, mouthfeel and overall acceptability using 9-point hedonic scale. Triplicate data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software of version 21. Mean values were determined using One-Way ANOVA and Fisher’s Least Significant Difference was used to separate the means at (p?0.05). The result showed no significant difference in colour and mouthfeel but significant difference existed for taste, aroma and overall acceptability, with bambara nut yoghurt rated highest.
EFFECTS OF FLOODING ON SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN ANAMBRA, NIGERIAPages: 70-74
Authors: Udemezue. J. C.*, Madukwe. M. C., Nwoye. I. I., Osegbue. E. G., Kadiri. A.O.
The study examined the impacts of flood on small scale farmers in Anambra state, Nigeria. For the purpose of the objective of the research, 30 farmers were randomly sampled from each communities and this gave a total sample size of 180 farmers. Structured questionnaires were the instrument used for data collection. Data were analyzed through the use of frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation. The result of the study indicated that the mean age was 40 years, 54.4% were male, 55% were married and 50% were illiterate with only 19.40% of the farmers completed primary school. The average farm size was 1.38ha while the mean year of farming experience was 15 years respectively. However, 72.2% of the farmers did not have access to extension services while majority (85.6%) of the farmers practiced subsistent farming. Loss of farms (2.72), hunger and starvations (2.59), displacement from natural domain (2.59), loss of properties (2.55), high incidence of poverty among farmers (2.53), ill health status of the farmers (2.35), loss of family members (2.25) and causing damages on roads (2.13) were perceived by the farmers as a very serious effect on their livelihood.
EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PILIOSTIGMA THONNINGII LEAF EXTRACTS ON THE HEAMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF BROILER CHICKENPages: 62-69
Authors: ALAGBE, J. O*, SHARMA, D. O, XING LIU
Three hundred one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used to evaluate the effect of aqueous Piliostigma thonningii leaf extracts (PTE) on the some hematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chicken. The birds were randomly assigned to five treatments of four replicates consisting of 15 birds each in a completely randomized design. Birds in treatment 1 (T1) were given PTE at 0 % while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were fed PTE at 20ml, 40ml, 60ml and 80ml per liter of water. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experiment which lasted for 4 weeks. The hematological parameters examined are: pack cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cells (WBC) and its differentials while those of serum biochemical parameters are: albumin, globulin, total protein, cholesterol, creatinine, urea, serum glutamic oxaloacetate (SGOT) and serum glutamic phospho-transaminase (SGPT). Result obtained showed that all the hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05) different among the treatments. Albumin, globulin, total protein, cholesterol, urea, SGPT and SGOT values were significantly influenced (P<0.05) by the inclusion of PTE in the water of birds. Creatinine level were not significantly (p>0.05) different among the treatments. It could be concluded that PTE at levels up to 80 ml have no deleterious effect on the blood profile of birds.
COMBINE EFFECTS OF INDEGENEOUS MYCORRHIZA INOCULUMS AND SOIL NUTRIENT LEVELS FROM UNDER LOCUST BEAN (PARKIA BIGLOBOSA) AND TAMARIND (TAMARINDUS INDICA) ON CHLOROPHYLL CONTENTS OF SOME CEREAL AND LEGUME CROPSPages: 50-61
Authors: Shuaibu Yunusa Muhammad*, Toma Buba
The study was carried out to find the effects of mycorrhizal soil inoculums from under trees Parkia biglobosa and Tamarindus indica on leaf chlorophyll contents of some cereal and legume crops. The result of the study revealed that, mycorrhizal soil from T. indica positively improves chlorophyll contents of maize in the high nutrient soil (P = 0.014), millet in the low nutrient soil (P = 0.004) and soybean in the medium (P = 0.000) and low (P = 0.000) nutrient soil. Soils of both T. indica and P. biglobosa showed no effects on chlorophyll content of maize in both medium (P = 0.137) and the low (P = 0.067) nutrient soils. Additionally, they show no effects on the leaf chlorophyll contents of sorghum in both high and medium nutrient soils (P = 0.439 and P = 0.075, respectively) and the same with millet (P = 0.608 and P = 0.252, respectively). Mycorrhizal soils of both the P. biglobosa and T. indica did not affects the chlorophyll contents of cowpea in the high, medium and low nutrient soils (P = 0.052, P = 0.084 and P = 0.085, respectively) and the same with groundnut (P = 0.245, P = 0.306, and P = 0.180, respectively). Both T. indica and P. biglobosa soils negatively affect chlorophyll contents of sorghum in the low nutrient soil (P = 0.030). To exploits the maximum benefits of these mycorrhizas in crop production in the savanna, more complex and extensive research is required.
AN OVERVIEW ON THE PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH COMMONLY SOLD NONO IN NORTHERN NIGERIAPages: 44-49
Authors: Muhammad R. Faruk*, Hassan Hadiza, Muhammad Z. Umar, Ishaq Aisha, Jibrin Amina
Pathogenic has been reported globally due to contamination of milk and other related products. ‘Nono’ is the Fulani word for the locally fermented milk product (from cow) produced by Fulani cattle rearers and popularly consumed in Northern Nigeria. This paper reviews the literatures on the pathogenic microorganism associated species in Nono products in North Central Nigeria. The organism frequently encountered include; Psendomonads aeruginosa, Serratia mercescens, Bacillus pumillus, Staphlococcus aureus, Salmonella spp and Bacillus alvei these pose a serious threat to the health of nono consumers It is therefore recommended that relevant authorities on food safety and food safety standards should monitor the production-line of nono sold to the public in order to ensure its safety for public consumption.